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Actors, Tools & Procedures


Workers are represented through the ETUC and European employers through BusinessEurope (former UNICE), UEAPME and CEEP:


The European Social Partners have to be consulted on Union initiatives in the social field. This consultation takes place in several stages. If the social partners decide to negotiate on a proposed subject, this can lead to the signing of framework agreements, which may be implemented in two different ways.


The European social partners have used a wide variety of tools in recent years. Below may be found an overview of the different tools and their functions.